Tag Archives: music

The Folk Musical Instruments of Nagaland

It is that traveling exposes one to a multitude of cultures and people. The diverse geography of India is home to some of the most unheard traditions and untold folklores. During my 10 day stint of backpacking in Nagaland, I was introduced to so many of it all, as this little Indian state, tucked in the far North-east is home to more than 17 tribal sects and sub-tribes; each having their own culture, language, traditions and cuisine. Here, is a small list of indigenous musical instruments used in the folk culture of the Nagas.


Mrabung is an indigenous musical instrument of the Zeliang Nagas. It is a single stringed instrument that is crafted with a hollow/ cured bottle gourd and a fretless wooden neck of about 12 inches long. It is played with hair string bow (Usually a cluster of horse tail tightly tied together to two ends of a thin wooden stick). This bow is used to strike the chords (like a violin) with one hand and the string along the neck is pressed down with the other hand at appropriate places to get the required tune and legato of the song. It is played during merry making in social gatherings and festivals where men and women congregate. I was narrated with a popular folklore of the Nagas wherein, a singer called Arum played the Mrabung. His music captivated the farmers so much that everyone working on the field left their work undone and sat around Arum listening to his songs. Arum had to be barred from playing any songs further just so the people went back to work on their farms. Click below to see an artisan playing the Mrabung.


The Atutu is a handcrafted bamboo trumpet used by the Pochury tribes of Meluri. A particular variety of bamboo is used in making the varied components that are fitted together to make this crafted trumpet. It is played to mark special occasions. For example, blowing of this trumpet towards the end of February means to herald and announce the advent of the Nazhu festival. Also, the male members of the tribe play it in their morungs in the evenings throughout the festival. Apart from this, the trumpet sound is used to ward off birds and animals from the rice fields and prevent from crop damage. In earlier days, trumpeting was a way to alert the collective habitat or a village of a possible enemy attack or as a signal of declaration of a war.

The Atutu: The bamboo trumpet


This common musical instrument has its own version and avatar in every region of India. Be it weddings or festivals, it is the most common and almost an essential part of any merry making in Indian celebrations. Similarly, each tribe in Nagaland has its own version of the dholaks or the Indian hand drums. Made with an outer casing of wood, laced tightly with cotton strings and the drumming surfaces made with the locally available materials, more often animal hide. Here are samples of the dholaks used by the Garos (Long slender shaped, narrowing at the ends), the Mech Kacharis (fatter and shorter than the Garos) and the Aao tribes (Shorter and fatter than the previous two types and Uniform sized throughout its length) of Nagaland. (Click the below link to watch the ceremonial dances of the Naga tribes with their dholaks)

This is my humble attempt at documenting some unique musical instruments that are lesser known to the world outside North-east India. These have been listed based on my actual experiences and interactions with the Nagas during the hornbill festival-2020. If you know any such unique musical instruments, please do share in the comments section below. I would be happy to learn it from you 🙂


A Visit to the Mecca of India- Ajmer

This was the first time I was stepping into the state of Rajasthan. Time has been kind on me yet again bringing me to the right place when the time was right! And this time it was to Ajmer during the holy month of Ramadan. Ajmer-Marwar region was a separate state until it was merged with Rajasthan. At a distance of 130kms by road from Jaipur, it is believed to be the second holiest place in Islam after Mecca. Apart from exploring Ajmer town, if you are a traveler, you can also include Pushkar in your itinerary, which is located less than 25kms from Ajmer. Apart from being a holy place for the Hindus, Pushkar is a popular haunt for the hippies from world-over. You can use the below itinerary if you have a weekend in hand. However, I could only explore Ajmer on this trip.

A weekend Itinerary:

Day 1: Bangalore to Jaipur (Flight); Jaipur to Ajmer (Hired car); Visit Ajmer dargah, explore Taragarh hill, Adhai-Din-Ka-Jhonpra, Akbar Palace & museum, Soniji-ki-Nasiyan Jain temple, Mayo college campus. (Night’s stay at Taj- Ajmer gateway)
Day 2: Visit Pushkar lake for sunrise, explore Pushkar town (and the annual camel fair, if you time your visit right); return to Jaipur (by road), Jaipur to Bangalore (flight)

The Details:

I was visiting Ajmer on a business trip with three of my colleagues (Click here to read about my job as a car doctor). Hence, I somehow managed to squeeze in sufficient time into my trip so that I could venture out in this city and explore most of whatever it has to offer for the traveller in me. Needless to say, no visit to this holy city is complete without heading to the Ajmer Sharif Dargah dedicated to the Sufi Saint Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti.

Apart from it being the holiest and the busiest of the times on the Dargah’s calendar, our visit also coincided with the 27th day of the holy month: revered as the ‘Night of Destiny’ in the Islam faith. This is a place where most people struggle to get past the crowds even on normal days. We were fortunate to have contacted one of the trustees of the Dargah who managed our entire visit and made it effortless. It was evening time and we had just finished offering our prayers by donating a Chadar to the diety. What we hadn’t realized was that we were there on the premises of this holy place at the time of breaking the day’s fast. We were offered some fruits, nuts and food by the trustees and other devotees who were distributing food there. I was overwhelmed with the thought of having had such an opportunity, at such a time!

Breaking the fast at Ajmer dargah Sharif

The Dargah is located at the base of the Taragarh hill, atop of which a fort is situated. The view of the entire hill overlooking the Dargarh is so beautiful with a township constructed on the steep slopes of the hill. Since, photography is prohibited inside the Dargarh premises, I wasn’t able to capture most of the things. It’s a welcome move in some places like these and respect the sanctity of the place. Enough is said and written about this place on the internet. So, I wish to cover about the other things this historic town has to offer.

After our visit, we walked the by lanes around the Dargah to explore the best of Ajmer. Not in terms of places but in terms of its lip-smacking street food. With a lot of Mughalai and Nawabi influence and it being the Ramadan season, the best of the spread was available. Needless to say, Ajmer is a haven for food lovers. By the time the last ray of the day’s sun had vanished, we were stuffed until our glottis.

If you are a history buff and want to find something to feed your wanderlust, you can take a walk to Adhai-Din-Ka-Jhonpra and the Akbar Palace and museum that are located closer to the Dargah. Soniji-ki-Nasiyan is a nice two-storeyed wooden Jain temple that can be visited enroute to Dargah Sharif. If you are at the luxury of time, a quick ride to quick ride to the Mayo college campus can be ended with some peaceful sunset time spent by the banks of the Ana Sagar Lake. But, for me- something else was awaiting!

The folk singers performing live in the courtyard of the Taj

I had my stay booked at the Taj- Ajmer gateway for the night, a world in itself to visit and hang around. The drive from Ajmer city towards it outskirts on Pushkar road, through winding roads with the backdrop of the setting golden sun was a picturesque treat after a tiring day of work and toil. All this seemed like only a grand welcome to the beautiful Taj property that’s nestled in the midst of nowhere in the lap of the Aravalis. The sky was dark, when we arrived at this palatial hotel. The entire driveway was lit with dim sodium lamps from the gate through the lounge. A faint outline of the Aravalli hills standing calmly on the backdrop only enhanced its grandeur. It was a warm welcome as the live Rajasthani folk music with the timbre of the Morchang and Khartal resonated from the courtyard. The host personally lead me to the room while explaining the delicately chosen wall murals and paintings as we walked through the elegant corridor. Though my stomach was stuffed with Ajmer’s street food, I did manage to make some space for the delectable dinner that I was hosted at the restaurant. With all items seasoned and cooked to perfection, each dish seemed better than the other. With a refreshing dip in the pool, a day was called!

Top: The courtyard at night Below: the morning view from my balcony

I looked forward for the morning as much as I did for the previous evening! I had set the alarm for sunrise but was woken up rather early by the calls of dozens of feral peacocks that had come from the forest/hills just behind the pool. I opened my balcony doors and voila! It was a magical morning with peacocks dancing in the courtyard and a modestly calm sun peeping out of shadowy grey clouds with the glorious green Aravalis forming a backdrop… I soaked in this special moment as much as I could from my balcony before I realised that it was time for me to pack-up. Finishing up the morning chores and ending my stay with the Taj with a wonderful breakfast spread, it was time for me to say good bye to this beautiful city of Ajmer and this beautiful Taj property- the Ajmer gateway!

Fact file:

Must-do: Make a wish by offering the Chadar or the decorated shawl to the deity/tomb at the Dargah Sharif.
Must eats: while the street food and the never-ending list of non-veg dishes are to die for in the month of Ramadan, Kadi Kachori and Soan-Halwa are an all-season recommendations.
Must buys: variety of prayer caps and incense.

The Street shopping at Ajmer

Beyond music and tribes- Ziro valley

This post is part of my fortnight long road trip across North-east India, specifically covering parts of Meghalaya – Assam – Arunachal Pradesh

After visiting Majuli in Assam, we were heading towards Ziro in Arunachal Pradesh. This small township is popular for its’ native Apathani tribes and the annual music festival that it hosts just before their harvest season. Since, we were going there around late October, we missed the music festival. But nevertheless, and we wished to meet the beautiful Apathani people from Ziro. Before I take you through this journey, it is required to know that Ziro is the name of an entire area. It is a valley located in the Lower Subansiri district and surrounded with mountains 360 degrees. If you are planning a trip there, this post can be helpful for you to plan your own ‘Ziro music festival itinerary’.

Our itinerary:
Night 1: Reach Ziro and check-in to a home stay at Siiro
Day 1: Visit Tarin fish farm, Siddheshwar Nath Temple at Kardo, Hapoli market, Putu sunset point, Stay at an Apathani tribal home
Day 2: Explore Apathani villages on leisure and return.

Other places & Things of interest:
• Short trek to DilopolyangManiipolyang- the twin hillocks
• Dolo Mando hill
• Middey- the place of the largest pine tree of the valley
• KilePakho ridge
• Meghna cave temple
• The orchid research center
• Drive to Talley Valley national park- Here you can spot the illusive clouded leopard

The Details:
We were in our shorts and loafers shivering with cold at a temperature of 2 deg C. when we arrived the top of Ziro valley at 12.30.a.m. At Hapoli market, we met the caretaker of the home stay we had booked who had come down to pick us to his home located in Siiro, a further drive up. After reaching his place, I couldn’t help but jump into the cozy bed that was set up in this traditional house with bamboo interiors and wrapped myself with the warm fluffy blankets. I passed out almost immediately!

The interior of our homestay at Siiro

The next morning was an interesting day. We visited the fish farm at Tarin. The Ngihi variety of fish is cultured in tanks located amid the pine trees in a beautiful location that you reach after a very scenic drive. Ziro is the only place in India where this species of high altitude fishes are reared and that too as an inter-crop in paddy fields. September would be an ideal month to see these aquaculture farms that set a beautiful green backdrop for the popular Ziro music festival.

The fish farm at Tarin

I must say that there are no roads in Ziro and one has to just randomly drive. So, we drove amid some scenic stretches and parked our car at the end of an eddy path. From there, we trekked up a small path inside the Kardo hills to reach the Sri Siddheshwar Nath Temple. Lord Shiva is believed to be residing here with his entire family in the form of a 20+ feet high self-manifested idol. We were introduced to Lord Shiva, Parvathi, Karthikeyan, Ganesh and even his little mouse in this remote location filled with just silence and the smell of burning incense. We walked a little further which we were told to be the only place in India where kiwi fruits are grown. This fact came as a rather surprise to us who are so used to seeing the New-Zealand seal on kiwi packs bought in the Indian markets. I picked up a kilo of these home-grown fruits at the price of what I would generally pay for one fruit at the supermarkets in Bengaluru.

Shiva temple at Kardo

We then, wandered around the Hapoli market which was altogether an experience in itself! Clothes, shoes, thermals, utensils, vegetables (that are mostly local), local sweets and confectionaries – everything was sold under the same roof. Bunches of bhoot-Jhalokias (the hottest chilies in the world) were sold in abundance. And then we reached this section of the market where we went berserk… Trust me! Rats, moths, honeybee larvae, silkworms, roaches were all there- up for sale. Rats were fancy. These rodents were sold in their farm fresh or dried & seasoned form. A dozen of them tied by their tails were handed over to the person next to me as if the vendor was giving him a bunch of litchis. However, I decided not to get too adventurous in trying any of these local delicacies.

The chillies and dried rats at the Hapoli market

From there, we drove to Putu (Hill-top) to catch the sunset. This is the top-most point in Ziro and you can see the entire town and the surrounding hills from here. The Ziro airport runway cuts right through the several Apathani tribal hamlets that lay scattered all over as seen from the top. We stayed there for some time enjoying the 360deg view and the cool breeze before heading back to Siiro.

We requested our homestay caretaker to serve us some local and traditional meal for the night. So, he enquired us if we would like to visit an Apathani tribal home over for dinner. What better than eating with an Apathani family in the land of the Apathanis! Without a second thought, we all jumped up and said “YES” in unison! We drove past several bamboo groves, pine forests and finally alighted at Hong village- A village full of the Apathani inhabitants. It was a sudden shift in the environment with almost all structures being only of bamboo. We were greeted at the village entrance by the carols and guitars at the church (That also was a traditional Apathani bamboo structure with fireplace in the center of the room). Although we couldn’t understand the lyrics, we were still lost in the magic of the native music. We waited there until the mass was over and visited the family that was waiting for our visit.

We were hosted by a warm welcome by all the members of the family where the eldest women of the family handed over bamboo mugs with the local brew of rice beer- Apong. I noticed that the construction of Apathani homes were simple. A large room with a central fireplace. Given the extreme cold temperatures of the place, almost all activities of a normal house are in this room since the fire keeps everything warm. The room has bamboo chairs in the living area, cots with beds on the other end for sleeping purposes, food will be cooked in this central fireplace and food grains & meat hung right above it for drying, a small water outlet to be used as a wash-basin that gets drained down the hut that is situated slightly above the ground. The washrooms are however located on the backside of the huts separately.

Then, we were served with a sumptuous Apathani meal. It was a complicated and an exotic spread for us as almost all the ingredients were new to us except the rice. Rice was accompanied with chicken cooked inside bamboo, Teak flower & shredded pork curry, Pika pila- a pickle made with bamboo shoot and pork fat and made to taste with Tapyo- the salt made by burning the local herbs without any water ( not from the sea!). Bliss… Since our visit to this Apathani home was exclusively for the dinner experience and as while we were still thinking that we couldn’t ask for more, the friendly family invited us over to stay with them for the night! Hearing that, our joy knew no bounds! We were excited and went back to Siiro to return to Hong with our luggage for the night!

The bamboo mugs that are used to serve rice beer

We spent the next morning photographing the village, discussing about the Apathani traditions, feeding the domesticated pigs and relaxing in this place that was so cut-off from the rest of the world. We were served simple sweetened rice with boiled eggs for breakfast after which we got busy chatting with the local folk. So, Apathanis are known world-over for their unique tradition of wearing huge nose studs with women folk having tattoos across their faces. The culture of drawing permanent face tattoos was practiced back then to avoid men from neighboring villages from abducting the girls of Apathani tribe who were considered to be very beautiful (indeed they are!). However, the younger generations of the tribe are against this practice in modern days who often get bullied in the cities/towns for the weird designs on the faces. It is sad that the so-called cultured people in the urban areas fail to recognize the line between tradition, culture and style! Although I have photos of the folk who had been so welcoming towards us, I will not post any of them here as a mark of respect for them as they don’t like the exploitation the photos undergo in the electronic media.

The village post office at Hong

That is all the time we had in this beautiful village. It was farewell to Ziro, its incredible natural beauty and the wonderful people, until next time! We drove down the valley with company of two Apathani women seated in our rear seat until half way (thanks to the poor connectivity of the place) and the serene river flowing down on our left side all the way down!

From here, we proceed on yet another eventful journey, to Haflong.

Key Notes:
Must do: Stay with an Apathani family, enjoy the Ziro music festival, spot a Mithun (a cattle breed endemic to this region), and shop groceries at the Hapoli market
Must see: The aquaculture in paddy fields.